Clarifying method

The structure of a method can often be made clearer by splitting it up into smaller methods. Martin Fowler, author of Refactoring, is an enthusiastic advocate of this style.

Refactoring an original method into smaller pieces has several advantages:

Sometimes a comment is placed at the start of a chunk of code, explaining its intent. If a clarifying method is used instead, then the chunk of code gets refactored into its own method, while the comment itself is replaced by a call to a well-named method. "When a comment grows up, it becomes a method call".


Here, the method parseSearchText, which was originally monolithic, has been refactored to call several private methods which perform very well-defined, simple tasks.

Boolean conditions can often benefit from being placed in their own method. Here, isDoubleQuote, isCommonWord, and textHasContent are all examples of this.

import java.util.*;

* The user enters text into a search box. This class is used
* to parse that text into specific search terms (or tokens).
* It eliminates common words, and allows for the quoting of text, using
* double quotes.
* JDK 7+.
public final class SearchBoxParser {

  public static void main(String... aArguments) {
    SearchBoxParser parser = new SearchBoxParser("mars venus \"milky way\" sun");
    Set<String> tokens = parser.parseSearchText();
    //display the tokens

  * @param aSearchText is non-null, but may have no content,
  * and represents what the user has input in a search box.
  public SearchBoxParser(String aSearchText) {
    if (aSearchText == null) {
      throw new IllegalArgumentException("Search Text cannot be null.");
    fSearchText = aSearchText;

  * Parse the user's search box input into a Set of String tokens.
  * @return Set of Strings, one for each word in fSearchText; here "word"
  * is defined as either a lone word surrounded by whitespace, or as a series
  * of words surrounded by double quotes, "like this"; also, very common
  * words (and, the, etc.) do not qualify as possible search targets.
  public Set<String> parseSearchText() {
    Set<String> result = new LinkedHashSet<>();

    boolean returnTokens = true;
    String currentDelims = fWHITESPACE_AND_QUOTES;
    StringTokenizer parser = new StringTokenizer(
      fSearchText, currentDelims, returnTokens

    String token = null;
    while (parser.hasMoreTokens()) {
      token = parser.nextToken(currentDelims);
      if (!isDoubleQuote(token)){
        addNonTrivialWordToResult(token, result);
      else {
        currentDelims = flipDelimiters(currentDelims);
    return result;

  private String fSearchText;
  private static final Set<String> fCOMMON_WORDS = new LinkedHashSet<>();
  private static final String fDOUBLE_QUOTE = "\"";

  //the parser flips between these two sets of delimiters
  private static final String fWHITESPACE_AND_QUOTES = " \t\r\n\"";
  private static final String fQUOTES_ONLY ="\"";

  /**Very common words to be excluded from searches.*/
  static {

  * Use to determine if a particular word entered in the
  * search box should be discarded from the search.
  private boolean isCommonWord(String aSearchTokenCandidate){
    return fCOMMON_WORDS.contains(aSearchTokenCandidate);

  private boolean textHasContent(String aText){
    return (aText != null) && (!aText.trim().equals(""));

  private void addNonTrivialWordToResult(String aToken, Set<String> aResult){
    if (textHasContent(aToken) && !isCommonWord(aToken.trim())) {

  private boolean isDoubleQuote(String aToken){
    return aToken.equals(fDOUBLE_QUOTE);

  private String flipDelimiters(String aCurrentDelims){
    String result = null;
    if (aCurrentDelims.equals(fWHITESPACE_AND_QUOTES)){
      result = fQUOTES_ONLY;
    else {
      result = fWHITESPACE_AND_QUOTES;
    return result;

See Also :
Avoid basic style errors
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